Transmutation of Elements
Occasionally, evidence for a whole spectrum of nuclear reactions, called transmutation, is seen when the surfaces of electrodes are examined.10, 28 These reactions are found when either ordinary hydrogen or deuterium is present, as gas or as water. Of course, some of this materialbut not allresults because ordinary impurities within the environment are concentrated on the surface. In some cases, great care was taken to purify the system. In addition, some of the anomalous elements are many orders of magnitude more than can be attributed to contamination, and some have an abnormal isotopic ratio.
In general, a special solid environment needs to be created, and the effect can be enhanced by electrical discharge. This aspect of the phenomena is proposed as a way to reduce the radioactivity of nuclear waste, by releasing energy stored in the unstable nucleus more rapidly. In other words, either the half-life is shortened, or the nucleus is converted to a stable isotope. In this manner, the nuclear waste poisons produced by fission power might be removed while making useful energy, all without making more poison. In this sense, cold fusion is higher up the evolutionary ladder to a more perfect energy source.
Where to Now?
Where do we go from here?
First, the special environments in which these nuclear reactions occur need to be identified and investigated. The common assumption that the active material is b-PdD has wasted much effort. Actually, the structures are very small regions within an inert material, and can be any one of many kinds of materials able to acquire a high concentration of deuterium or hydrogen. Although palladium is one of these materials, the compound b-PdD is not the structure in which the nuclear reactions occur. This realization shifts attention away from bulk material, which can be easily studied, to very small regions within a larger structure, which are not so easy to study.
In other words, the cost of tools needed to understand this effect has just gone up. This creates a Catch-22. The present, rejecting attitude restricts investigators to using simple tools, which are incapable of answering the questions skeptics demand be answered. Without these answers, no money will be spent on the required tools.
The literature now consists of more than 3,000 papers having some relationship to the effect, with about 1,000 of these useful for an understanding. Many are published in peer-reviewed journals. More than 500 variations on various themes have been proposed as explanations, with about a dozen being useful. Work is being done in six countries with official government support in most.
Of this group, only the United States has resisted supporting any but a small effort. In fact, the U.S. Patent Office is unique in refusing to issue patents on the subject. The United States is now the largest user of polluting energy, yet resists any change in this situation, even to the point of completely ignoring a method to make safe nuclear energy. How much worse must the situation become before our leaders come to their senses?
Dr. Edmund Storms retired in October 1991 from Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, where he had worked for 32 years. His research there was on the SP-100 space nuclear program, and space nuclear propulsion systems. He continues to conduct his own research in "cold fusion," and has published many articles on the subject.
1. R. Park, 2000. Voodoo Science. (New York: Oxford University Press) 211 pages.
2. C.G. Beaudette, 2000. Excess Heat. Why Cold Fusion Research Prevailed. (Concord, N.H.: Oak Grove Press, Infinite Energy, Distributor) 365 pages. Reviewed in 21st Century by Dr. Thomas E. Phipps, Fall 2000, p. 74.
3. S. Pons, and M. Fleischmann, 1990. "Calorimetric measurements of the palladium/deuterium system: Fact and fiction." Fusion Technol., Vol. 17, p. 669.
4. M.H. Miles, and B.F. Bush, 1994. "Heat and Helium Measurements in Deuterated Palladium." Trans. Fusion Technol., Vol. 26(4T), p. 156.
5. B. Bush, and J.J. Lagowski, 1998."Methods of Generating Excess Heat with the Pons and Fleischmann Effect: Rigorous and Cost Effective Calorimetry, Nuclear Products Analysis of the Cathode and Helium Analysis," in Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah.
6. M.C.H. McKubre, et al., 2000. "The Emergence of a Coherent Explanation for Anomalies Observed in D/Pd and H/Pd System: Evidence for He-4 and He-3 Production," in Eighth International Conference on Cold Fusion. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.
7. L.C. Case, 1998. "Catalytic Fusion of Deuterium into Helium-4," in Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah.
8. Y. Arata, and Y.-C.Zhang, 1997. "Helium (He-4, He-3) within deuterated Pd-black." Proc. Japan Acad. B, Vol. 73, p. 1.
9. E. Storms, 2000. "Excess Power Production from Platinum Cathodes Using the Pons-Fleischmann Effect," in Eighth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000 Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna,Italy.
10. G. Miley, et al., 2000. "Advances in Thin-Film Electrode Experiments," in Eighth International Conference on Cold Fusion. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.
11. J. Divisek, L. Fuerst, and J. Balej, 1989. "Energy balance of D2O electrolysis with a palladium cathode. Part II. Experimental results." J. Electroanal. Chem., Vol. 278, p. 99.
12. C.T. Dillon, and B.J. Kennedy, 1993. "The electrochemically formed palladium-deuterium system. I. Surface composition and morphology." Aust. J. Chem., Vol. 46, p. 663.
13. D.S. Silver, J. Dash, and P.S. Keefe, 1993. "Surface topography of a palladium cathode after electrolysis in heavy water." Fusion Technol., Vol. 24, p. 423.
14. J. Dash, G. Noble, and D. Diman, 1994. "Surface Morphology and Microcomposition of Palladium Cathodes After Electrolysis in Acified Light and Heavy Water: Correlation With Excess Heat." Trans. Fusion Technol. Vol. 26 (4T), p. 299.
15. J.O.M. Bockris, and Z. Minevski, 1996. "Two zones of 'Impurities' observed after prolonged electrolysis of deuterium on palladium." Infinite Energy, Vol. 1 Nos. 5/6, p. 67.
16. T. Ohmori, et al., 1997. "Transmutation in the electrolysis of light water-excess energy and iron production in a gold electrode." Fusion Technol., Vol. 31, p. 210.
17. T. Ohmori, et al., 1997. "Low temperature nuclear transmutation forming iron on/in gold electrode during light water electrolysis." J. Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 22, p. 459.
18. Y. Iwamura, et al., 1998. "Detection of anomalous elements, X-ray, and excess heat in a D2-Pd system and its interpretation by the electron-induced nuclear reaction model." Fusion Technol., Vol. 33, p. 476.
19. T. Mizuno, et al., 1998. "Confirmation of the changes of isotopic distribution. for the elements on palladium cathode after strong electrolysis in D2O solutions." Int. J. Soc. Mat. Eng. Resources, Vol. 6, No. 1, p. 45.
20. V. Nassisi, 1998. "Transmutation of elements in saturated palladium hydrides by an XeCl excimer laser." Fusion Technol., Vol. 33, p. 468.
21. T. Ohmori, et al., 1998. "Nuclear transmutation reaction occurring during the light water electrolysis on Pd electrode." Int. J. Soc. Mat. Eng. Resources, Vol. 6, No. 1, p. 35.
22. T. Ohmori, et al., 1998. "Transmutation in a gold-light water electrolysis system." Fusion Technol., Vol. 33, p. 367.
23. I. Savvatimova, 1998. "Transmutation Effects in the Cathode Exposed Glow Discharge, Nuclear Phenomena or Ion Irradiation Results?" in Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah.
24. Y. Iwamura, et al., 1998. "Detection of Anomalous Elements, X-ray and Excess Heat Induced by Continuous Diffusion of Deuterium Through Multi-layer Cathode (Pd/CaO/Pd)," in Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah.
25. V. Nassisi, and M.L. Longo, 2000. "Experimental results of transmutation of elements observed in etched palladium samples by an excimer laser." Fusion Technol., Vol. 37, p. 247.
26. X.Z. Li, et al., 2000. "Nuclear Transmutation in Pd Deuteride," in Eighth International Conference on Cold Fusion. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.
27. Y. Iwamura, T. Itoh, and M. Sakano, 2000. "Nuclear Products and Their Time Dependence Induced by Continuous Diffusion of Deuterium Through Multi-layer Palladium Containing Low Work Function Material." in Eighth International Conference on Cold Fusion. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.
28. J. Warner, and J. Dash, 2000."Heat Produced During the Electrolysis of D2O with Titanium Cathodes." in Eighth International Conference on Cold Fusion. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.